Email : HelpLine : (03218)223668
Dhruba Chand Halder College


Year of Establishment :
B.Sc. GENERAL : 2000-2001
B.Sc. HONS. : 2000-2001
Names of Programmes / Courses offered :

Faculty Profile





Dr. Malini Basu


Assistant Professor

Environmental Microbiology

Nirza Moktan


Assistant Professor


Dipankar Roy


State Aided College Teacher (SACT-II)

Marine Science & Microbiology

Pampa Bhattacharya


State Aided College Teacher (SACT-II)


From the desk of the HOD…

Dept. of Microbiology

Dhruba Chand Haldar College

“The highest education is that which does not merely give us information but makes our life in harmony with all existence.”                                
–Rabindranath Tagore
We, here at Dhruba Chand Haldar College, strive throughout the year to motivate students and maintain a conducive environment to empower their understanding and critical thinking ability through various challenging activities. Our main aim is to establish a prime student-teacher interaction so that our students can benefit the most.

Microbiology is a fast-developing interdisciplinary field of study, which was established in the undergraduate level in West Bengal way back in the late 1990s and early 2000. Ever since, this subject has intrigued several students and opened up a great deal of opportunities.

However, in remote areas like ours, amidst all obstacles, we urge students to look beyond what their socio-economic status offers them, and dream big. It is undeniable that opportunities do not come easy here, but we focus on fulfilling the dreams and aspirations of our students, no matter how impossible it may seem. We intend to make our students so capable that they may be par excellence.

We aim to motivate students and show them the path to excellence, not merely through academic courses, but also encourage them to participate in the different educational tours (institute/ industrial visits), seminars, research scopes via collaboration with other reputed national labs and colleges, science quizzes, and magazine compilation and so on.

Here, in the Dept. of Microbiology, we strive to maintain a very ambient environment, and uphold the true spirit of learning and education. We urge all our students to delve deep and explore this subject that they have taken up, so that they may prosper ahead in life with the knowledge they gain from here.

                                                                                                                          DR. MALINI BASU


The Department of Microbiology of Dhruba Chand Halder College was established in the year 2000. Academic Session 2000-2001 for both General and Honours in Microbiology started under the affiliation of Calcutta University.
The department is housed in the First Floor of the Science Building situated in the north-east part of the College campus. The department comprises of two laboratories and an inoculation room.

This department has four teaching and one non-teaching staffs. The teachers are competent enough to teach both Hon ours and general syllabi. It is achieved through rotation of topics assigned to be taught every year among the teachers. The teachers are continuously striving to upgrade themselves so that they can teach the new inclusions in the syllabus as well keeping themselves abreast of the upcoming developments in the field of Microbiology. These are being achieved through attending workshops, seminars as well as surfing the internet and research related works.

The syllabus of Microbiology (Honors & General) has been revised by Calcutta University in 2009 -2010 and recently semester system curriculum has been implemented by UGC and implemented subsequently. The department has prepared module of the syllabus so that the topics can be taught in sequential manner within the time framework. The maturity of the students in understanding the topics is also kept in mind while making the module so that easier & basic topics are taught first and gradually shifted to the tougher topics. For more interest teachers are adopted for ICT mode of teaching and also apply it since 3 to 4 years.

Group discussions are held with the students to learn about their difficulties in the understanding of the subject and adequate remedial measures are taken. The teaching-learning interactions are also done in such a manner that the students show spontaneous response and interest on their behalf and also do not feel burdened. Meeting with guardians of students are held, especially when a student is not performing well or showing poor attendance in class.

The Department also has one desktop and one laptop by which teachers and students are benefitted by surfing internet. Departmental library also equipped with more than 100 different international and national theory as well as practical books on Microbiology. Teachers always motivate the students to gather as much as knowledge from these resources.

This department also has a rich laboratory for undergraduate level students containing Spectroscopy, Cold Centrifuge, Vertical gel electrophoresis, Horizontal gel electrophoresis, BOD incubator, -20 refrigerators, Immunoelectrophoresis like neoteric instruments. All the students are equally able to get chance hands on experience of the entire practical in their own department.  

The Department also conducts the industrial and research Centre visit like Indian Institute of Chemical biology, National Institute of Biomedical Genomics, IFB industry, Metro Dairy, Vivekananda Institute of Biotechnology etc. for various industrial and research prospects of our microbiology students.

Our previous students are engaged in various reputed institutions and industries in all over the India. Many students securing all India based competitive exams in PG and PhD levels. Some of them become the Assistant Professors in various State Govt. and State Govt. Aided colleges. Some of them are engaged in various industries, national and state govt. research institutions.    

Special contact for student correspondence

College Phone No.

03218-223668 (Office)



Departmental Email

Link for UG Hons. And General Syllabus:

The Department of Microbiology may be small, but it offers a well-rounded program and extensive scope in many areas of Microbiology.
The Department has a well-equipped Microbiology laboratory, well-stocked Departmental library & highly experienced & efficient teaching staff & non-teaching staff.. Most of the students get admissions into M.Sc. courses in reputed colleges. All the teachers put in their full dedication to prepare the students well. Inclusion of research into some of the classroom learning experiences further enhances student learning and development. The Department provides collaborative interaction of students with Industry Experts.


  • Emphasize the "department as priority" to achieve the set educational goals.
  • Establish a willing and long term "continuous improvement mechanism."
  • Improve education quality and student learning efficiency.
  • Coordinate with industry demand for talent to increase the career development opportunities for graduates and address   
  • The issue of talent drain in industries and academia
  • Improve connections between the department and "the industry".



The main aim of education is to make the person better and to let them develop the various skills that they need for their life. Education should not only be the knowledge of knowing the facts but it should also be the knowledge of learning and implementing what one knows.  The Department aims at providing a student with a thorough grounding in the basics of Microbiology. Students will be able to acquire, articulate, retain and apply specialized knowledge relevant to microbiology. Students will acquire and demonstrate competency in laboratory safety and in routine and specialized microbiological laboratory skills applicable to microbiological research or clinical methods, including accurately reporting observations and analysis. Students will communicate scientific concepts, experimental results and analytical arguments clearly and concisely, both verbally and in writing. Students will demonstrate engagement in the Microbiology discipline through involvement in research or internship activities


Serial No.

Event Name


Resource Person

Supporting Documents


Adapting to The New “Normal’’: International Virtual Biology Discussion


Dr. Indranil Paul
Dr. Punarbasu Chaudhuri
Dr. Feroj Ahmed Syed
Dr. Moumita Sarkar

To view the Flyer:
Click Here


Annual Departmental Magazine Opening and Teachers day Celebration



To view the magazine :
Click Here


Making Sense of Uncertainity: Coping in the Era of Coronavirus


Dr, Dhrubajyoti Chattopadhyay
Dr. Koustubh Panda
Dr. Ambika Charan Banerjee
Dr. Sagarmoy Ghosh
Dr. Roopa Biswas
Dr. Ratan Gachhui
Dr. Sanjay Ghosh
Dr. Pritha Mukhopadhyay

To view the Flyer:
Click Here

The departmental students take immense interest in the different co- curricular activities of the department & College also. They actively participate in the Quiz Competitions, different Social Welfare and Awareness Programs, Seminars, etc. The students prepare and publish the departmental Wall Magazines. During excursions the students successfully execute their responsibilities and cooperate with the teachers and staff. 

The teachers always trying to arrange such different programs, industrial visits, outreach programs and research institute visit for growing interests, learning new techniques related to microbiology and gaining knowledge about the prospects of microbiology field.  

The students actively participate in different extracurricular activities like sports, social functions, health check-up camps, etc. Organized in the college. Many of the students can sing, dance, recite, write articles and poems, etc.

List of Visit organized by Departmental Teachers in Industries & Research Institutes







Vivekananda Institute For Biotechnology, RamKrishna Mission, Nimpith

Mainly Biotechnological Products such as Various types of Bio fertilizers, Vermicomposts, Azolla, Production Of Mushrooms & various types laboratories sre there such as Plant Tissue Culture labs, Soil Testing, Water Testing labs.

1 day

To view Photographs click on the link:


IFB Agro Industries, Noorpur

Mainly Beverage Factory.
A visit specially showing how microorganisms are applied in beverage industries, they also get knowledge about the career opportunities in industrial microbiology.

1 day

To view Photographs click on the link:


Metro Dairy Industries, Barasat

Mainly Dairy Industry
A visit specially showing how microorganisms are applied in dairy industries, they also get knowledge about the career opportunities in industrial, especially in dairy microbiology

1 day

To view Photographs click on the link:


IICB Salt lake

Central Govt. Research Institute. A visit specially for showing modern instruments and techniques applied in their practical.

1 day

To view Photographs click on the link:


NIBGm, Kalyani

Central Govt Research Institute.
An outreach program arranged for expertise them about opportunity and techniques in research fields

1 day

To view Photographs click on the link:

List of Departmental Seminars organized by Departmental Teachers







Recent Trends And Scopes in Biotechnology and Microbiology


1 day

To view Photographs click on the link:


Bacteria As Cell Factories for Production of Green Plastics

Dr. Amal Kanti Paul

1 day

To view Photographs click on the link:

Wall Magazine:
Every year teachers take initiative to release wall magazine where mainly students were participated with the help of respective teachers.

To view Photographs click on the link:
Departmental Programs:
Students are main arranger of these events. They first take decisions about these and then consult with teachers. Then permission are taken from HOD of Microbiology department for departmental participation and finally take permission from principal to invite other departmental teachers and students. They organize mainly Teacher’s Day, Fresher’s Welcome and Farewell ceremony.

To view Photographs click on the link:

Participation of Intercollege Cultural Program and Sports
Departmental teachers are always insist the students for taking part to intercollege competitions like quiz, sports, debates, singing, recitations etc.

To view Photographs click on the link:

Student’s Contribution:
Recently in Covid-19 lockdown period students of microbiology has made a video in which they mean to fight against corona and this fighting spirit will brig the new corona free morning we all are eagerly waiting. 

To viewVideo click on the link:


  • Archana Chakraborty- Vivekananda Institute for Biotechnology, Ramkrishna

                                        Mission Asram, Nimpith, South24 Pgs.

  • Sonali  Saha --- Assistant Professor in P.R. Thakur College

                            Joint CSIR-UGC NET 21-06-2015, Rank-130/0814

  • Saptarshi Naskar--- Pathology Dept. Ruby General Hospital, Bullygunge.
  • Arindam Pal Choudhury--- Working as Food Inspector (FCI) in Malda Dist.
  • Prabir Sahoo --- Contractual Whole Time Lecturer In Raidighi College, Sundarban,

                             South 24 Pgs.

  • Nirmalya Ghosal ---- Passed NET (LS), Now Post Doc in Philipines.
  • Sudipta Chakraborty--- Passed NET (LS) in 2009. Doing PhD under the Guidance of    

                                          Dr. Anirban Siddhanta. Now Appointed as Assistant Professor
in Barasat Govt. College

  • Prosenjit Das – Passed out in 2007—Now in ISSCO Tokeyo (Ahmedabad), Soil         

                           Training Laboratory.

  • Debjit Motilal -- Passed out in 2007—Now in Biocon, Bangalore.
  • Souvic Singha Roy-- Passed out in 2007 Now in KPO (Knowledge Processing

                                   Outsourcing) Australian Student’s Teacher on Microbiology.

  • Poulami Pal-- Passed out in 2006—now the teacher in Sonarpur High School.
  • Monotosh Mahato-- Passed out in 2006—now in Geological Survey of India.
  • Santanu Samanta— Now in State Bank of India.
  • Samiran Naskar – Now in Alchemist, Pune.
  • Animesh Naskar – NET Cleared. Now in JRF in Jadavpur University
  • Eikhlas Hossein---- Not Perfectly Known the place of exact employment place.
  • Soumitra Naskar--- Not Perfectly Known the place of exact employment place.
  • Damayanti Roy --- Not Perfectly Known the place of exact employment place

                                                                                                    And many more
Question Bank From SEM-1 to SEM-4

CC1 (Protozoa, Fungi, Algae)

Answer in one word (1 mark)

  • Give the names of two groups of soil bacteria.
  • Write down the main statement of spontaneous generation.
  • Give the name of one algae which is used for astronauts.
  • Winogradsky column is similar with which ecosystem?
  • Name the causative agent of kala azar.
  • Name one antibiotic effective for Leishmaniasis.
  • Name one industrially important fungus; also mention one product produced from it.

Brief answered questions (2 marks/3 marks)

  • Schematically explain the each zone of Winogradsky column.
  • Distinguish between amastigote and promastigote with pictures. Where are they found?
  • What is alteration of generation? Explain with at least one example (Haplobiontic; Diplobiontic; Haplodiplobiontic)
  • Diagramatically explain the character of lesion produced by Antamoebae histolyticum.


CC2 :( Taxonomy, Systematics, Microscopy)

 Short Question (2 marks)

  • Mention two essential characters of species.
  • Give two important differences between eubacteria and archae.
  • What is Numerical Aperture (NA)? Write down its formula.
  • Two main differences between SEM and TEM.
  • Mention two limitations about electron microscopy.
  • Which type of stain is used for electron microscopy and why?
  • Define GAPN, GAPOR and Tiny TIM. Where are they found?
  • Mention one advantage of phase contrast microscopy.

CC3 (Protein, Enzyme, Vitamin, Carbohydrate, Nucleic acid):

Short Question (2 marks):

  • Define Anomer, epimer. Give example of each.
  • Mention two differences between reducing and non-reducing sugar. Give example.
  • Write down the general formula of amino acid.
  • Give the name of 21st and 22nd amino acid.
  • Define zwitterion.
  • Why amino acids are amphoteric in nature?
  • Why amino acids become immobilized at their isoelectric point?


Explanative Question (3 marks)

  • Explain glucose contain five -OH group with suitable example.
  • Define Iodine number. It indicates which?
  • Why RNA is alkali labile?
  • How do you distinguish between aldose and ketose on the basis of oxidation reaction?
  • Explain with example that fat molecule contain glycerol moiety.
  • Draw a DNA melting curve and point out the Tm value.
  • What is helix maker and helix breaker? Give example.
  • What is ‘molten globule state” with respect to protein folding?
  • Mention one advantage of Bradford assay against Lowry assay.
  • Write down the Van slyke reaction of amino acids.
  • How does ninhydrin reaction indicate the presence of ?-amino acids in protein? Explain with example.
  • What is Sanger’s reagent? Give reaction.
  • Mention one limitation of biuret test for protein.
  • Write down one remarkable difference between
  • Coenzyme and cofactor.
  • Write down the main features of competitive inhibition; from this respect mention at least two differences as well as advantages of it than non-competitive inhibition.
  • Give some clinical application (medical field) of competitive inhibition.
  • Why does butter turn rancid if left unrefrigerated for some times?
  • Explain the functions of following coenzyme with reactions they catalyse:
    • Biotin
    • TPP
    • Vitamin B12



  • What is stop transfer sequence?  Mention its function.                                               2.5
  • Give one difference between COPI and COPII mediated protein transport.                 1
  • i)  Which cell organelle is called “suicide bag” and why is it called so?                       2

ii) Describe briefly about the enzymes of that organelle.                                            2.5

  • What is the role of KDEL receptor in protein transport?                                               2
  • Briefly discuss about protein transport into mitochondrial membrane.                         3
  • What is matrix targeting sequence?  State its function.                                                 2
  • In which organelle protein can enter in folded state and why?                                      2
  • i) Give some examples of post translational modification.                                            2

ii) Describes about glycosylation out of that.                                                              2.5

  • What is Zelweger’s syndrome?                                                                                      1
  • Write down the detoxification reaction of cell.  Where is it occurred? Why is it necessary?                                                                                                              1+1+1
  • What is tonoplast?                                                                                                          1

CC5 (Virology)

  • What is viroid? Mention at least two main differences of it with virus.
  • Write a short note about prion.
  • Schematically explain one step growth curve.
  • In which family ? phage belongs? Write down the three characteristics of this family.
  • What is Lytic and Lysogenic cycle? Give two differences.
  • How does environmental condition affect lysogeny?
  • Write down the name of proteins involved in both lytic and lysogeny cycle and explain their role to maintain both cycle.
  • Mention the name of one viral vector and at least one feature of it.


  • What are methanogens?  Give example.                                                                        2
  • Distinguish between methanogen and methanotroph.                                                    2
  • In which way aerobic respiration is different from anaerobic respiration? [Mention the name of terminal electron acceptor].                                                                              2
  • Give the name of two purple photosynthetic bacteria.                                                   2
  • What do you mean by reducing power? Where is it derived from in case of both oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis?  Distinguish between oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis. Define extracellular respiration. What are carotenoids?                       


  • Write down the reaction of hydrogen oxidation and give the name of enzyme involved in it.
  • What is interspecies hydrogen transfer? Give example. Name the cofactors involved in methanogenesis. Why we use fluorescence microscope to study methanogen? Distinguish between phototrophs and chemolithotrophs.                   2+2+1+2+1+2=10


  • Explain the role of CAP-cAMP complex in the regulation of lac operon. Define split genes. Give the name of process that excises intron. Are you familiar with any modification of histone protein in chromatin structure? Explain your answer. Give the name of enzymes which are involved in that specific modification and mention their function.                                                                                              2+2+1+2+1+2=10
  • Can operon be present in eukaryotes? Explain your answer. Write down the significance of attenuator sequence in trp operon. Why trp operon is called repressible operon? Describe any one splicing mechanism out of grop I and group II intron.                                                                                                                                   


  • What is operon? Give example. Where is it found; either prokaryotes or eukaryotes? Classify operon and give example of each.
  • Draw a schematic diagram of Lac operon and explain its function.
  • Differentiate between acetylated and deacetylated histone proteins. Write down the name of enzymes involved in histone acetylation and deacetylation.


  • Define the term Bioremediation. Explain it in respect to oil spill. Name the organisms capable of bioremediation and also name at least one enzyme involved in bioremediation.
  • Write down the name of degradation product of cellulose and also mention the name of enzyme involved in this degradation.
  • Give one main difference between starch and cellulose.
  • Why lignin is almost resistant to microbial attack?
  • Write down the characteristics of sewage water, specially mention the % of water and organic matter in the sewage respectively. Name the microbes present in sewage.
  • What is VOC? Give one example.
  • Schematically explain the Treatment Proess Train.
  • Briefly describe the term coagulation and name some coagulants.
  • Compare between oxydation pond and Trickling filter on the basis of structure, mode of function and microbes involved.
  • Explain anaerobic digestion with appropriate reacton.

1. Answer all questions.
a) What are the genotypic difference between F+, F- and Hfr cells?
b) What is Balanced lethal mutation?
c) What do you mean by abortive transduction?
d) Why LINEs are referred to as retrotransposons?
e) What is linker DNA?
f) What is SOS box?
g) What is junk DNA?
h) What do you mean by sexduction?
i) Write the name of two alkylating and two Intercalating agents.
j) Write down the difference between Specialized and Generalized transduction.             2x10

2. (a) You have a naturally transformable bacterial strain. How do you determine whether it   
can take up DNA only from its own species or it can take up any DNA ?
(b) What is the use of F’ factors in genetic analysis?
(c) Write a short note on Wobble Hypothesis.                                                               3+2+5

3. (i) Differentiate between:
(a) missence and nonsense mutation.
(b) LINE and SINE
ii) What are the important criteria to choose in order to maintain two different plasmids in a    
single cell?
iii) Name the genes whose products (a) might not be expected on plasmids and (b) might be
expected on plasmids?                                                                                        (2.5x2)+2+3

4. (a) What is the significance of Cot value analysis?
(b) What are composite transposons and how do they differ from simple ones?
(c) What is meant by maternal inheritance?
(d) Define plasmid incompatibility. How do Par proteins functions function in plasmid
partitioning?                                                                                                         2+2+3+3

5. (a) Discuss the role of RecBCD protein complex in recombination during conjugation and   
(b) Why are frameshift mutations more likely than missense mutations to result in proteins    
that lack normal function?
(c) Which phenotype rifampin or leucine auxtroph will have higher mutation rate and why?     
(d) What is transformation efficiency? What is electrotransformation?                                                               

Unit 1
Answer the following questions in one to two words (1 mark each)
1. Write the name of first identified Hyperthermophile
2. Write the name of the world toughest bacteria
3. Write the name of oil-eating bacteria
4. Which bacteria grow at 37°C?
5. Which bacteria grow at high osmotic pressure?
6. Define the term barophile
Answer the following short questions (2 marks each)
1. What is Extrimophiles?
2. Define Halophiles with an example
3. Which factors affecting the rate of decomposition?
4. Write the feature of Oligotrophs
5. Define Psychrotolerants. Give an example
6. Define radioresistor with an example
7. Define xerophile with an example
8. Define barotolarent with an example
9. What are the different extreme environmental conditions?
10. State about the occurrence of Oligotrophs.
Answer the following broad questions (more than 2 marks)
1. What are the characteristic adaptations of oligotrophs? Give an example of it. Write
the biotechnological application of halophiles. (2+1+2)
2. Explain the adaptive mechanism of psychrophiles. Why psychrophiles are known as
bioremidiators? . (2+2)
3. Classify the thermophiles with respect to temperature and give an example of each.
Explain the adaptive mechanism of thermophiles with diagram (1.5+1.5+2)
4. Write the biotechnological application of acidophiles and alkaliphiles ( 2+2)
5. Why microorganism decomposes plant organic materials? Explain the different
decomposition process. (2+3)
Unit 2
Answer the following questions in one to two words (1 mark each)
1. What is neutralism?
2. What is bio-fertilizer?
3. What is ammensalism?
4. What is meant by the term fixed Nitrogen?
5. What is the biological significance of root nodule formation legunes?
6. What is competitive exclusion?
7. What are rhizobia?
Answer the following short questions (2 marks each)
1. State differences between mutualism and commensalism? Give example.
2. Give example of ammensalism and synergism.
3. Compare bio-fertilizers and chemical fertilizers.
4. Define predation and parasitism. How are these similar and different?
5. Discuss mutualism relationship between two microbial population.
6. How do Rhizobia colonize the legume root?
7. Why is nitrification a good example of commensalistic process?
8. How does bio-fertilizers enhances soil fertility?
9. How do Azotobactor and Rhizobium sp. protect their nitrogenase from oxygen?
10. How do molybdenum and vanadium and leg haemoglobin influence nitrogenase
11. Describe the differences between symbiotic and asymbiotic nitrogen fixation.
12. Briefly describe the process of nitrification and de-nitrification.
13. Discuss the differences among symbionts and opportunist and pathogens.
14. What factors determines the attraction of Rhizobium to the root surface of legume
15. With suitable examples define commensalism.
16. Write notes on nod gene?
17. Differentiate between competition and predation with respect to microbial interaction.
18. What are the two kinds of nitrogen fixing bacteria? Elucidate with example.
Answer the following broad questions (3 marks each)
1. Briefly state the mechanism of biological nitrogen fixation.
2. Write short notes on Rhizobium.
Unit 3
Answer the following questions in one to two words (1 mark each)
1. What is meant by cross inoculation group?
2. What is nod cluster?
3. Differentiate between nitrification and ammonification
4. Distinguish between nitrate assimilation and denitrification.
5. What is infection thread?
Answer the following short questions (2 marks each)
1. Name the signal molecules secreted by legumes to interact with Rhizobia.
2. What is leg-hemoglobin? What is its function?
3. Differentiate between symbiotic and non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation?
4. What role played by IAA and lectins in biological nitrogen fixation?
5. What are nif genes and nif clusters?
Answer the following broad questions (more than 2 marks)
1. Write the chemical nature of dinitrogenase complex. 4
2. Give an account on the symbiotic and non-symbiotic nitrogen fixers with their specific
hosts. 4
3. Write the role of TCA cycle acids in amino acid biosynthesis. 3
4. Write the reactions catalysed by GS and GOGAT and mention their regulatory roles. 4+2
5. Write the role of different types of cofactors involved in dinitrogen fixation in Rhizobia. 4
Unit 4
Answer the following questions in one to two words (1 mark each)
1. What is waste?
2. Define biomedical waste.
3. Define MSW.
4. What is e-Waste?
5. What do you mean by Waste management?
6. What is hazardous waste?
7. What is composting?
8. What is C/N ratio?
9. Define BOD
10. Define COD
11. Define NOD
12. What are coliform bacteria?
13. What do you mean by eutrophication?
Answer the following short questions (2 marks each)
1. Write the different categories of solid waste.
2. Describe the risks and problems associated with solid wastes.
3. What is the “4R”s of waste management?
4. What do you mean by sludge and activated sludge?
5. Write the characteristics of an indicator organism
6. What do you mean by secondary waste water treatment?
7. What do you mean by tertiary waste water treatment?
8. Write the importance of secondary sewage treatment.
9. Write the importance of tertiary sewage treatment.
10. Describe how solid sludge is disposed after sewage treatment.
Answer the following broad questions (3 marks each)
1. Briefly describe activated sludge process of waste water treatment
2. Briefly describe trickling filter process of waste water treatment
3. Briefly describe the various processes of tertiary waste water treatment.
4. Write short note on organic composting.
5. Write short note on sanitary landfilling.
Unit 5
Answer the following questions in one or two words (1 mark each)
1. What do you mean by bioremediation?
2. Define the following terms
Biostimulation, Bioaugmentation, Biosparging, Bioventing, Biopiles
3. What do you mean by Xenobiotic compound?
4. What is bioleaching?
5. What do you mean by in-situ and ex-situ remediation?
6. What is Super Bug?
7. Wtat are PAHs?
Answer the following short questions (2 marks each)
1. Describe the role of microbe in degradation of DDT
2. What are the limitations of Bioremediation?
3. Write the advantages of Bioremediation
Answer the following broad questions (3 marks each)
1. Describe the different techniques used in bioremediation process
2. Write Mechanisms of Heavy Metal Remediation by Microorganisms
3. Describe the role of microbes in remediation of inorganic contaminants
4. Describe the role of microbes in remediation of organic contaminants
Unit 6
Answer the following questions in one or two words (1 mark each)
1. Why is MPN called so?
2. During confirmatory test of coliform detection, methylene blue is used in the media.
Explain the reason.
3. What are coliforms?
4. What are indicator organisms?
5. Name an indicator organism other than E. coli
6. Define water treatment.
7. State the APHA guidelines about allowable coliform count in potable and recreational
8. What is the function of a Durham’s tube?
Answer the following short questions (2 marks each)
1. What is FC/FS ratio?
2. State one example each of water borne disease caused by a) bacteria b) virus c)
protozoa d) fungi
3. What is the full form of SIM agar? For what purpose is it used?
4. How does UV light inactivate microorganisms?
5. Chlorine di-oxide is more efficient than chlorines and monochloramines in
disinfecting water. Explain the reason.
6. Explain the mechanism of ozonation mediated disinfection of water.
7. Apart from MPN, what is the other direct method of determining the no. of coliforms
present in a water sample?
Answer the following broad questions (more than 2 marks)

  • What are the major advantages and disadvantages of superheating and flushing in

             treatment of potable water? 3

  • What are the potential merits and demerits associated with treatment of water by

             chlorination? 3

  • Why are monochloramines often more preferred in treatment of water as compared to

             simple chlorination? State its limitations. (2+2)

  • Explain clearly the basis of each of the four tests of IMViC used to discriminate

            between typical and atypical coliforms. (2x4=8)

  • What is a TSI test? State clearly the different zones of bacterial growth used in a TSI



  1. Answer any 5 questions.                                                                                  (5x2=10)
  • Why was the addition of heat stable DNA polymerase such an important innovation with respect to the PCR method?
  • What is the advantage of fusing a promoter of interest to a promoterless copy lacZ gene?
  • Why do bacteria have restriction endonucleases (RE)?
  • What is site directed mutagenesis?
  • On what technique DNA fingerprinting is based?
  • What is reporter system?
  • Arrange the following cloning vectors in order of their size of the DNA inserts that they can carry                                                                                                      

                                     BAC, Cosmid, YAC, Plasmid pBR322

  1. (a) Why was cDNA and not genomic DNA used in the commercial cloning of the

      human insulin gene?
(b) How is DNA amplified without cloning?
(c) What is a disarmed strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens? How can such a strain   
be used to create a transgenic plant?
(d) DNA is a biologically inactive molecule, but can be used to produce an active
molecule (True / False)?                                                              [2+2+(2+3)+1=10]

  1. Mention True or False with specific reasons of the following:                    (5x2=10)
  • Most proteins have a larger molecular size that the genes that encode them.
  • Multiple genes can be detected simultaneously using recombinant DNA technology.
  • In polymerase chain reaction, a specific DNA fragment is amplified by using primers and thermostable DNA ligase.
  • New DNA molecules can be created by DNA fingerprinting technology.
  • The application of biotechnology in agriculture is a dangerous practice.
  1. (a) An ampicillin-resistant, tetracycline-resistant plasmid, pBR322, is cleaved with   

     PstI, which cleaves within the ampicillin resistance gene. The cut plasmid is
ligated with PstI digested Drosophila DNA to prepare a genomic library, and the
mixture is used to transform E. coli K12.

(i) Which antibiotic should be added to the medium to select cells that   
have incorporated a plasmid?
(ii) If recombinant cells were plated on medium containing ampicillin   
or tetracycline and medium with both antibiotics, on which plates
would you expect to see growth of bacteria containing plasmids                  
with Drosophila DNA inserts?
(iii) How can you explain the presence of colonies that are resistant to
both antibiotics?

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            (b) List the advantages and disadvantages of using plasmids as cloning vectors.             

  • (a) You are given the following DNA fragment to sequence: 5’-ACTTGGCACC-3’.   

      You first clone the fragment in bacterial cells to produce enough DNA for   
sequencing. Then DNA is isolated from bacterial cells and dideoxy sequencing is
carried out. Draw the bands that will appear upon gel electrophoresis from the
four sequencing reaction. 
(b) Write the difference between Genomic and cDNA library.
(c) What is RFLP? Mention the utility of RFLP.
(d) What is reporter gene?                                                                 [3+2+(2+2)+1=10]

  • (a) What advantages do BACs and YACs provide over plasmids as cloning vectors?

(b) Why is sodium hydroxide used for making cDNA?
(c) After 10 rounds of amplification how many copies of the amplified region should   
you have theoretically?
(d) Describe how would you detect phosphorylated proteins in a given cell extract?      

  1. (a)  A molecule of double-stranded DNA that is 5 million base pairs long has a base

      composition that is 62% G + C. How many times, on average, are the following   
restriction sites likely to be present in this DNA molecule? 
i). BamHI (recognition sequence is GGATCC).
               ii). HindIII (recognition sequence is AAGCTT)
              iii). HpaII (recognition sequence is CCGG)                          
(b) Describe how would you choose a suitable cloning vector used on the size of the   
recombinant gene to be cloned. What is a yeast two hybrid system & what is the
specific purpose for which it is generally used?                                  [5+(3+2)=10]